Влияние моделей открытого доступа Green и Gold на метрики цитирования
Разумова Ирина Константиновна
Кузнецов Александр Юрьевич
We report results of different approaches to analysis of the impact of open access (OA) on citation metrics. 1. The first study relates to the Russian articles in the hybrid journals published by the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC). The Gold-for Gold-Russia Project created a unique situation when all Russian articles accepted for publication by RSC in 2016 were transformed into open access almost simultaneously within February and March of 2017. Article processing charge (APC) was waived for Russian authors. This removed the problem of the subjectivism of author choice as all participated authors agreed to transform to OA all their articles complient with the project. We created two reference groups: the open access articles and non-open access (paywall) articles. Materials comprise the citation data available in Web of Science Core Collection by Clarivate Analytics (WoS CC) measured quarterly within one year. The method of regression analyses was applied. 2. New service of WoS CC launched in January 2018 enables analysis of the OA articles from the hybrid journals. Therefore we analyzed the country-level citations of the OA and paywall articles in the RSC hybrid journals published in 2016. Along with Russia, we selected two other countries where governmental policies resulted in waiving APC for their authors: the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. 3. Finally, we investigated citation metrics, %Cited and average citation rates of Green OA, Gold OA and paywall articles published within 2009-2017. As on the 2nd quarter of 2018, we analyzed the data available in the Dimensions database of Digital Science, WoS CC and the InCites platform of Clarivate Analytics. Results. 1. Two reference groups of the Gold-for Gold -Russia Project shows that citation per open-access article in the RSC hybrid journals grows 34% faster than citation per the paywall articles. In both cases, the y(x) dependence follows the linear law with R² = 0.997. Here, y is the average citation per article, and x is the time period in months calculated from the beginning of the project. (See Fig.1). 2. The country-level analysis performed in April 2018 gives the following ratios of average citations of OA to that of NOT OA articles in the RSC journals: the United Kingdom - 1.37, the Netherlands - 1.33, Russia - 1.36 (See Table 1). 3. Results of the citation analysis of the Dimensions and WoS CC articles published in 2009-2017: The benchmark %Cited values of the Green OA articles in WoS CC, and Green OA, Gold OA, and paywall articles in Dimenstions are 99%, 89%, 74% and 60%, respectively. Within the nine-year period, temporal dynamics of the average citation rate fits the linear dependence with R² = 0.9970.001. Results show that citation of the OA articles grows faster and reaches higher values than that of the paywall articles. The Green OA articles are cited better than the Gold OA ones. Similar results were obtained for the WoS CC open access datasets processed with the InCites tools. In nine years, the average citation of articles in the Dimensions database makes 33 for the Green OA, 23 for the Gold OA and 12 for the paywall articles. The values for the WoS CC articles are 46, 35.5 and 23, respectively. Discussion and Conclusions. Within the first year after the creation of two reference groups of Russian articles in RSC journals, citation of open-access articles grows faster and reaches the higher values than those of paywall articles. Similar results were reported in [1, 2]. This is also valid for two other countries where the governmental policy results in zero article processing fees for authors and thus removes subjectivism of author choice of the articles to be transformed into the gold open access format. The latter was often mentioned in the literature as one of possible reasons that could affect the results obtained [3.4]. Analysis of the whole scope of the OA and paywall articles performed in WoS CC and Dimensions draw the conclusion on the higher percent of cited articles and citation rate of the OA articles. The values of the Green OA articles exceed those of the Gold OA, the values obtained in WoS CC are higher than those in Dimensions. References: 1. Wang, X., Liu, C., Mao, W. et al. The open access advantage considering citation, article usage and social media attention. Scientometrics (2015) 103: 555. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-015-1547-0 2. Prashant Kamat. Impact of Open Access Papers in Hybrid Journals. ACS Energy Lett. 2018, 3, 410−411 DOI: 10.1021/acsenergylett.8b00061 3. Davis, P. M., & Fromerth, M. J. (2007). Does the arXiv lead to higher citations and reduced publisher downloads for mathematics articles? Scientometrics 71(2): 203-215. 4. Davis, P. M.; Lewenstein, B. V.; Simon, D. H.; Booth, J. G.; Connolly, M. J. L. (2008). Open access publishing, article downloads, and citations: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 337: a568–a568. doi:10.1136/bmj.a568.